The 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) will be from the 30 November to the 11 December 2015 in Paris. It is the annual meeting of all countries which want to take action for the climate. The aim of the COP21 is to create an International agreement about the climate. In fact, according to the research of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a temperature increase of over 2°C would lead to serious consequences, such as a greater frequency of extreme climate events. But what is Climate Change and this consequences? Why the COP21 is more important than the other COPs? Climate Change is a consequence of global warming, and the cause of global warming is greenhouse gases. The greenhouse effect is a natural process and permits to life to exist on the Earth. The Earth is surrounded by the atmosphere and the greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), and nitrous oxide (N 2O). These gases return a part of solar radiation on the surface of the Earth and overlook the majority of solar radiation. These solar radiations heat the surface on the Earth. Without this greenhouse effect, the Earth surface temperature would be much too cold for life. Too much of a good thing, however… The problem is human activity creates more gases as a by-product and increases the quantity of greenhouse gases around the Earth. Therefore, more solar radiations are returned on the surface of Earth and the temperature increases little by little. Although the incremental increases may seem micro, the effect they have is on a much grander scale. You can watch this video for more details about the greenhouse effects: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYMjSule0Bw Source http://www.livescience.com/37743-greenhouse-effect.html The middle temperature has increased of 0.85°C since 1880 and could increase until 5°C in 2100. Consequences of this increasing temperature are large and the most important are:
- The melting ice and the increasing of oceans forcing many people to move
- Increasingly important natural catastrophes like hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, etc.
- Increasing of droughts and floods (depending regions)
- Ocean acidification decreasing the number of species (fishes, crustacean, etc.) and provoking famines
- Loss of biodiversity
- Problem on the human health (asthma, allergies, increasing risk for malaria, etc.)